is a series of multimedial programs for teaching dynamic biological
and physiological mechanisms in an interactive and virtual environment
which allows users to perform their own sets of experiments.
cLABs programs are equally suitable for universities and biology classes
at schools as well as for private studies.
our latest cLABs-Software, demonstrates the interrelations between
ion channel dynamics and membrane currents and voltages. It consists
of the modules:
module provides animations and simulations to basic functions of neuronal
membrane properties which are described in terms of their electrical
Illustrates the functional membrane properties (= bilipid layer and
ion channels) and their electrical equivalents (= membrane capacitance
Visualises current flows and potential changes across a resistor and
a capacitor in a RC-parallel circuit.
Allows experiments to examine the voltage changes that occur in a RC-parallel
circuit when current pulses are applied and no active elements (e.g. ion
channels) are involved.
and capacitance of the RC-circuit can be changed.
variable number of current pulses of pre-selectable amplitude, duration
and delay can be applied.
This interactive section can be used to learn how the membrane potential
can be changed with alterations of ionic conductances. For an intuitive
understanding we use a simplified circuit which only consider the Na
and K currents and even neglect the membrane capacitance (stationary
You can move the sliders of the potentiometers to see how the membrane
potential and currents change as a function of the ionic conductances.
The buttons allow pre-sets of the conductances to minimal, maximal
or equal values and also simulates the changes during an action potential.
module embraces the structure, gating mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity
of voltage dependent Na and K ion channels.
first part of the program introduces and describes the main characteristics
of one- and two-gate ion channels with a selectivity for potassium and
following interactive section simulates single channel Na- and K-currents.
Here, the user can de- or repolarize a virtual membrane and record the
resulting ion currents, as well as watch the gating mechanisms.
This virtual laboratory is the main part of the module and shows the time
course of Na- and K-currents, according to the number of ion channels
in a virtual cell membrane.
can stimulate a certain number of single Na- and K-ion channels and the
record the respective currents, which are add up to a virtual whole cell
module provides a virtual lab for voltage- and current-clamp experiments
with different types of neurones and also explains background and concepts
of the recording techniques.
This interactive module shows step-by-step how the generation of actions
potentials on current injection leads to the concepts of current-recordings
in a voltage-clamp circuit. Recording and stimulating electrodes can be
inserted into virtual neurons. Voltage- and current-clamp recordings during
the application of hyper- or depolarising stimuli of different amplitudes
illustrate the transitions from purely passive to active neuron responses.
A virtual computer laboratory for both current- and voltage-clamp experiments
with mathematically simulated neurons.
simulations are based on simplified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type algorithms.
editor allows the user to change the neuronís parameters and to develop
and save his/her own favourite neurons.